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Свод «Древнейшие источники по истории Восточной Европы»
Восточная Европа в древности и средневековье (материалы Чтений)
Древнейшие государства Восточной ≈вропы. 2014 год: Древн¤¤ Русь и средневековая Европа: возникновение государств. C. 5-23.
’айнрих ’эрке
Миграции и образование государства в период раннего средневековь¤: взгл¤д с «апада
ћиграции Ђплеменї и подвижность элит фигурируют во многих повествовани¤х о становлении государства и формировании наций. Ќо часто встречающеес¤ утверждение, что миграции в период раннего —редневековь¤ непременно вели к образованию государства, не выдерживает критики, если применить его к тому, что происходило в «ападной ≈вропе между V и XI вв. ћиграции этого периода заканчивались по-разному. »сследовани¤ по данной теме, обсуждаемые в статье, касаютс¤ англо-саксонской иммиграции в јнглию и прочих миграций VЦVII вв. в «ападной ≈вропе, а также иммиграции викингов на Ѕританские острова, равно как и прочих миграций скандинавов в IXЦXI вв. на западе ≈вропы. ¬се эти случаи свидетельствуют, что миграци¤ не всегда приводила к образованию государства. Ќо даже если до образовани¤ государства дело не доходило, не исключено, что среди мигрантов возникали социальные изменени¤, поскольку во главе мигрантов об¤зательно сто¤л вождь. √осударство образуетс¤, скорее всего, только тогда, когда иммигранты встречаютс¤ с местным населением, занимающим более высокий уровень общественного развити¤. ќдной из причин мог быть характер сегментарной (племенной) организации: она предполагает общественные племенные св¤зи и общих предков в составл¤ющих плем¤ линиджах. Ётим объ¤сн¤ютс¤ ограничени¤ численности, а также (и это важнее) ограничени¤ в смысле идентичности. ¬следствие завоевани¤ иммигрантами (или иммигрантской элитой) местное население порой превращалось в рабов, прикрепленных к хоз¤йствам членов линиджей и работавших на них. јльтернативой могло быть образование единого государства, основанного на общей идеологии (в период раннего —редневековь¤ в «ападной ≈вропе такой идеологией стало христианство)
Heinrich Harke
Migrations and State Formation in the Early Middle Ages: A view from the West
Migrations of УtribesФ, and mobility of elites, fi gure in many narratives of state formation and nation-building. But the frequent assumption that early medieval migrations regularly led to state formation is not borne out by a critical look at western European cases between the fi fth and eleventh centuries AD. The outcomes of migrations in this period varied considerably. The case studies discussed in this paper include the Anglo-Saxon immigration into England and other migrations of the fi fth Ч seventh centuries AD in western Europe, and the Viking immigration into the British Isles as well as other Scandinavian cases of the ninth Ч eleventh centuries AD in the west. Taken together, these cases demonstrate that migration does not necessarily lead to state formation. But even in the absence of state formation, some social change among migrants is likely because migrations require organisational leadership. State formation appears to have been a likely consequence only where immigrants encountered native populations of a certain level of social complexity. The reason might lie in the nature of segmentary (tribal) organisation: it presupposes social links and shared ancestry among the lineages of the tribe. This imposes size limitations, but more importantly restrictions in terms of identity. After conquest by an immigrant population or elite, one possible solution is that the native population is reduced to the status of slaves who are attached to the households of lineage members. The alternative would be the creation of a joint state based on a common ideology (such as afforded by Christianity in early medieval western Europe).
 лючевые слова
Key words:
Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, migration, colonization, state formation
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