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Свод «Древнейшие источники по истории Восточной Европы»
Восточная Европа в древности и средневековье (материалы Чтений)
Древнейшие государства Восточной Европы. 2016 год: Памяти Г.В. Глазыриной. C. 211-230.
Автор(ы)
З. Ю. Метлицкая
Название
ЯЗЫЧНИКИ И ЯЗЫЧЕСКОЕ ПРОШЛОЕ В ДРЕВНЕАНГЛИЙСКОМ ПЕРЕВОДЕ «ВСЕМИРНОЙ ИСТОРИИ ПРОТИВ ЯЗЫЧНИКОВ» ПАВЛА ОРОЗИЯ
Аннотация
В статье рассматриваются изменения, которые претерпел образ языческого прошлого в древнеанглийском переводе «Всемирной истории против язычников» Павла Орозия по сравнению с латинским оригиналом. Высказано предположение, что, перерабатывая структуру текста и смещая акценты, англо-саксонский переводчик ориентировался не только на раннесредневековые богословские или политические концепции, как считалось до сих пор, но и на современные ему исторические реалии. Самой животрепещущей темой для английского короля и для всего «народа англов» были викингские нашествия, а самой насущной необходимостью – борьба с ними. Многие внесенные в перевод изменения можно связать с желанием донести до предполагаемых адресатов мысли и образы, которые могли объединить и воодушевить их в ситуации, когда им приходилось вести непрекращавшуюся войну за выживание.
Autor(s)
Zoya Yu. Metlitskaya
Name
HEATHENS AND THE HEATHEN PAST IN THE OLD ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF PAULUS OROSIUS’S HISTORIA ADVERSUS PAGANOS
Summary
According to the well-established scholarly opinion Orosius’s work was chosen for translation in late 9-century Wessex because it was a patristic text giving a specifically Christian view of the history; this work provided the translator with an opportunity to present to his readers/listeners the narrative of the world history from the Christian point of view. An alternative explanation of this choice is that Orosius’s providential conception of the ‘transition of the Empire’ between four great kingdoms, as well as his idea that the rise of Rome was due to the Divine Plan of the preparation of the Incarnation, allowed the translator to read the text as a reflection on kingship and power, and to propose to the audience a piece of king’s propaganda. Nevertheless none of these versions can fully explain the radical changes made in the structure of the narrative. In particular, the Anglo-Saxon translator followed the Latin original fairly enough up to the end of the fourth book, but the fifth book, as well as the sixth and seventh, covering the Christian epoch, were dramatically abridged. There are also many minor changes, omissions and interpolations. The comparison of the depictions of the heathen past and the heathens in Orosius’s work and in its Anglo-Saxon translation may be useful for deeper understanding of the message of the Old English Orosius as a whole. In his dealing with the history of the pre-Christian past the Anglo-Saxon translator was keen not so much in the demonstration of the terrible state of the world, as in the description of brave (though much often desperate) efforts of men to survive and act in this world. So he was really interested neither in the early history of the Roman state, nor in its political history in Christian times, but in the struggle of Romans for the existence of their city, and their amveald (this Old English word that means something like ‘sphere of power’). Such an interpretation was probably influenced in a great degree by the Anglo-Saxons’ own perception of the pre-Christian past, particularly of their own past, which included the ideals of bravery and honesty in desperate situations. The Christian world is better, not because the pre-Christian world was dark (as in it presented in the Latin original), but because in it good and steadfast people might hope to be victorious. Thus retelling Orosius’s stories of evils, wars, and calamities, which had been the mainstream of the human history from the ancient times, the translator communicated to real Anglo-Saxons the Christian reflections on the problem of the Vikings’ invasions. He reminded that even before Christ there were many heroes who fought bravely to defend their land, notwithstanding the prospect of inevitable defeat. He also told, that in the Christian world there was a place for mercy and hope, that calamities come and pass over, and people ought to be steadfast and enduring, for now there were no reasons for despair.
Ключевые слова
Англо-Саксонская Англия, король Альфред Великий, историческое сознание, древнеанглийский перевод «Всемирной истории против язычников» Орозия
Key words:
Alfred the Great, Anglo-Saxon England, “Alfredian translations”, Vikings invasions, Old English Orosius
Литература
Метлицкая З.Ю. «Ворчливые римляне» и викингские нашествия: Цели создания и предполагаемая аудитория древнеанглийского перевода Орозия // Люди и тексты. Исторический альманах, 2012. М., 2013. С. 65–101.
Орозий Павел. История против язычников. Книги I–III / Пер. с лат., вступит. ст. и коммент. В.М. Тюленева. СПб., 2001.
Орозий Павел. История против язычников. Книги IV – V / Пер. с лат., вступит. ст. и коммент. В.М. Тюленева. СПб., 2002.
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